More Realities… Health, Health Care and the Business of Illness

More Realities… Health, Health Care and the Business of Illness

Reclaiming Our Health presents a brilliant, refreshing, and uplifting new vision of what health care in America might be as well as practical solutions for us as individuals and for a health-care system gone awry

RECLAIMING OUR HEALTH
REALITIES

Facts excerpted from Reclaiming Our Health:
Exploding the Medical Myth and Embracing the Source of True Healing
by John Robbins
1998 – 436 pages

In his rousing and inspiring style, John Robbins, author of the acclaimed best-seller Diet for a New America, turns his attention to the national debate on health care. Calling for nothing short of a revolution in the basic beliefs on which health care is based, he convincingly demonstrates the enormous human and financial costs of the polarization of conventional and alternative medicine. Although Americans spend far more money on medical care than any other people in the world, many of us cannot afford the most basic coverage; we rank 25th among the world’s nations in infant mortality; the toll in human suffering from degenerative disease continues to rise; the danger from virulent communicable diseases is increasing daily; and, meanwhile, women are growing increasingly frustrated with the care they receive from a male-dominated system. There are answers to these problems, and Reclaiming Our Health presents a brilliant, refreshing, and uplifting new vision of what health care in America might be as well as practical solutions for us as individuals and for a health-care system gone awry.
Published 1998
H J Kramer

Below are the “Realities” from John’s ’98 book;

The Present Situation

Americans who had no medical insurance in 1993, when President Clinton launched his crusade for universal health coverage – 39 million (1)
Americans who had no medical insurance in 1996 – 42 million (1)
Additional Americans who were seriously underinsured in 1996 – 29 million (1)

At current rate of increase, number of years before more than half of all Americans are either uninsured or seriously underinsured – 20 (2)

Number of other fully industrialized countries that do not guarantee minimum healthcare to every single citizen – 0 (3)

Annual per capita income in Shanghai – $350 (4)
Annual per capital income in New York City – $20,500 (4)
Money spent on medical care in Shanghai annually – $38 per person (4)
Money spent on medical care in New York City annually – $3,000 per person (4)

Number of infants born in Shanghai who die before their first birthday – 10.9 per 1,000 births (4)
Number of infants born in New York City who die before their first birthday – 13.3 per 1,000 births (4)

Life expectancy at birth in Shanghai – 75.5 years (4)
Life expectancy at birth in New York City for people of color – 70 years (4)
Life expectancy at birth in New York City for whites – 73 years (4)

Percentage of U.S. GNP spent on healthcare in 1935 – 3% (5)
Percentage of U.S. GNP spent on healthcare in 1965 – 6% (5)
Percentage of U.S. GNP spent on healthcare in 1995 – 14% (5)
At current rate of growth, number of years before U.S. healthcare costs would exceed nation’s entire GNP – 75 (2)

Percentage by which per capita U.S. healthcare expenditures exceed those of Canada – 40% (6)
Percentage by which per capita U.S. healthcare expenditures exceed those of Germany – 90% (6)
Percentage by which per capita U.S. healthcare expenditures exceed those of Japan – 100% (6)
Primary reason U.S. automobiles are more expensive than Japanese cars considered to be of comparable quality – higher employee healthcare costs (7)
Year the average Fortune 500 company’s healthcare costs are expected to equal 60% of after-tax profits – 2000 (8)

Average amount of time U.S. patients are allowed to speak before being interrupted by their doctors – 18 seconds (9)
Percentage of U.S. patients who, once interrupted, go on to finish their statement or question – 2% (9)

Widely held belief among Americans - The U.S. has the best healthcare system in the world
U.S. rank among world nations in per capita expenditure on medical care – 1st (10)
U.S. rank among world nations in malpractice suits – 1st (10)
U.S. rank among world nations in infant mortality – 25th (11)
Beginning With Birth
Percentage of nations in western Europe whose infant mortality rates are superior to ours – 100% (11)
Percentage of births attended by midwives in western Europe – 75% (12)
Percentage of births attended by midwives in U.S. – 4% (12)
Average cost of midwife-attended birth in the U.S. – $1,200 (13)
Average cost of physician-attended birth in the U.S. – $4,200 (14)
Healthcare savings obtainable annually by utilizing midwifery care for 75% of pregnancies in the U.S. – $8.5 billion a year (15)
Widely held belief among Americans – Birth practices in the U.S. have improved greatly since the 1960s
U.S. cesarean rate in early 1960s – 3% (16)
U.S. cesarean rate in 1996 – 22.9% (17)
Average cost of a cesarean birth in a U.S. hospital – $8,000 (18)
U.S. cesarean rate in for-profit hospitals compared to non-profit hospitals – nearly double (19)
Newborn/mother contact in first 48 hours after vaginal birth – often constant
Newborn/mother contact in first 48 hours after cesarean birth – minimal and drugged
Cesarean rate for hospital births compared to those begun in freestanding birth centers – 4 times greater (20)
Principal birth attendants in freestanding birth centers – midwives (20)
Number of studies that have compared outcomes for babies and mothers at freestanding birth centers to those in hospitals – many (21)
Number of studies that have found worse outcomes for babies or mothers at freestanding birth centers compared to hospitals – none (21)
Percentage of women who give birth in freestanding U.S. birth centers who say they are very satisfied with their experience and would recommend the birth center to friends and family – 99% (22)
Percentage of women who give birth in U.S. hospitals who say they are not satisfied – 60% (23)
Incidence of fetal distress in babies born in hospitals compared to birth centers – 17 times greater (24)
Incidence of neurological abnormalities – 3 times greater (24)
Incidence of jaundice – 6 times greater (24)
Position of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists on freestanding birth centers – opposition (25)
Often credited for historical decline in maternal and infant mortality – obstetrical interventions
Actual reason, according to the British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology – Advances in public health, sanitation, and nutrition, improvement in women’s working conditions, the addition of Vitamin D to milk (thus preventing rickets), and the development of antibiotics (26)

Percentage of the 24 countries with lower infant mortality rates than the U.S. that provide universal prenatal care – 100% (27)

Percentage of pregnant women in the U.S. who receive little or no prenatal care – 25% (28)
Consequence of lack of prenatal care – far more low birthweight babies (29)
Percentage of infant deaths linked to low birthweight – 60% (30)
Average cost of healthcare through the age of 35 for a low-birthweight baby – $50,558 (31)
Average cost of healthcare through the age of 35 for a baby of average weight – $20,033 (31)
Cost of prenatal care for one woman – $500 (32)
Cost of newborn intensive care for one infant – $20,000 – $100,000 (30)
Healthcare savings obtainable annually by providing universal prenatal care to all pregnant women in the U.S. – $10 billion a year (33)

Patriarchal Medicine

Year the AMA elected its first woman board member – 1989
Number of women presidents in AMA’s 148 year history – 0 (34)
Percentage of medical school deans in U.S. today who are women – 3% (34)
Percentage of today’s gynecologists and obstetricians who are male – 80% (35)
Percentage of their patients who are male – 0%
Number of times in its history the executive board of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has been less than 75% male – 0 (34)
Percentage of American women who will have a hysterectomy in their lifetimes – 50% (36)
Percentage of U.S. hysterectomies that are medically imperative – 10% (37)
Most common reason for hysterectomy in the U.S. – fibroids (37)
Number of women with fibroids who are relieved of the pain and heavy bleeding within three months of adopting a low-fat high-fiber vegetarian diet – the vast majority (38)
Second most common reason for hysterectomy in the U.S. – endometriosis (37)

Number of women with endometriosis whose symptoms disappear or lessen dramatically on a low-fat high-fiber vegetarian diet – the vast majority (39)
Percentage of American physicians who recommend dietary changes for fibroids and endometriosis – less than 1% (40)

Menopause, Naturally

Most widely prescribed drug in U.S. – Premarin (Estrogen Replacement Therapy) (41)
Primary reasons prescribed – Hot flashes, osteoporosis, and heart disease
Percentage of menopausal women who obtained complete relief from hot flashes by taking 200 mg of vitamin C and 200 mg of bioflavonoids 6 times a day – 67% (42)
Percentage of menopausal women who obtained relief from hot flashes by taking two herbal capsules three times a day (licorice root, burdock root, wild yam root, dong quai root, and motherwort) for three months in a double-blind placebo-controlled study – 100% (43)
Percentage of women in same study who obtained relief from placebo – 6% (43)

Percentage of U.S. physicians who discuss natural approaches with their menopausal patients – 2% (44)

Percentage of U.S. physicians who routinely prescribe estrogen – 84% (44)

Years a woman must take estrogen to obtain benefits for osteoporosis – 20 or more (45)

Health drawbacks to estrogen – substantially increased breast cancer risk, increased risk for liver and gallbladder disease, prolonged incidence of fibroids and endometriosis, greatly increased uterine cancer risk (if taken without progestins), increased side effects (if taken with progestins) (46)

Years a woman must take natural progesterone to obtain benefits for osteoporosis – 1 (47)

Health drawbacks to natural progesterone – rare (47)

Percentage of post-menopausal women who showed substantial new bone formation on natural progesterone cream – 97% (47)
Percentage of U.S. physicians familiar with natural progesterone – less than 1% (40)

Evidence that heart disease can be prevented and reversed with low-fat vegetarian diets – conclusive (48)

Average bone loss of 65-year-old meat-eating American woman – 35% (49)
Average bone loss of 65-year-old vegetarian American woman – 18% (49)

Percentage of U.S. physicians who recommend low-fat vegetarian diets to prevent heart disease and osteoporosis – less than 1% (40)

Kids, Drugs, and Nutrition

Primary treatment for U.S. schoolchildren diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – Ritalin
Percentage of U.S. schoolchildren on Ritalin – 5% (50)
Potential side effects from Ritalin – Anxiety, hair loss, convulsions, nausea, insomnia, headaches, weight loss, slowing of growth, compulsive nervous behaviors (51)

Number of well-designed studies in which Ritalin has been shown to enhance long-term learning – 0 (52)

Percentage of hyperactive children who improved when artificial colorings, flavorings and sugar were eliminated from their diet – 79% (53)

Change in problem behavior (theft, insubordination, hyperactivity, suicide attempts, etc.) in juvenile delinquents when artificial colorings, flavorings and sugar were eliminated from their diet – Dropped 47% (54)

Years when New York City public schools gradually eliminated all artificial colors and flavors and reduced sugar in school cafeterias serving more than 1 million schoolchildren- 1979-1983 (55)

Change in mean national academic performance in New York City public schools during experiment – Jumped from 39th to 55th percentile (the largest gain ever measured in any comparable period of time in any metropolitan school district in U.S. history) (55)
American Academy of Pediatrics position on medication and drug treatment for children with ADHD – endorsement (56)
Number of words in American Academy of Pediatrics position paper on ADHD about nutrition – 0 (56)

Funders for American Academy of Pediatrics 1995 nutrition video for children –
The Sugar Association and the Meat Board

Did you get that?
Who paid for Nutrition Information Video for Children?
The Sugar Association and the Meat Board!!!
The Sugar Association and the Meat Board!!!
The Sugar Association and the Meat Board!!!
(57)

Title of fact sheet promoted by the American Dietetic Association that focuses on ADHD – “Questions Most Frequently Asked About Hyperactivity” (58)
Answer given to questions, “Is there a dietary relationship to hyperactivity? Should I restrict certain foods from my child’s diet?” – “No.” (59)

Statement given regarding sugar – “Sugar has a mildly quieting effect on some children.” (60)
Is this a comedy routine? [Billy]

Source of fact sheet promoted by American Dietetic Association –
The Sugar Association (58)

Number of accredited medical schools in the United States – 127 (61)
Number with no required courses in nutrition – 95 (61)
Average U.S. physician’s course work in nutrition during four years of medical school – 2.5 hours (62)

Percentage of first year medical school students who consider nutrition to be important to their future careers – 74% (63)
Percentage who, after two years of medical school, still consider nutrition important – 13% (63)

Percentage of U.S. physicians who are overweight – 55% (64)

Percentage of U.S. physicians who eat the recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables – 20% (64)

Antibiotics Tomorrow

Staphylococci infections resistant to penicillin in 1960 – 13% (65)
Staphylococci infections resistant to penicillin in 1987 – 91% (65)

What’s happening to all our antibiotics today – becoming increasingly ineffective due to microbes developing resistance (66)

Primary cause – overuse of antibiotics (66)

Effect of antibiotics on viruses – none
Number of antibiotic prescriptions written by U.S. doctors for cold viruses annually – 4 million (67)

Total purchases of antibiotics by U.S. hospitals in 1962 – $94 million (67)
Total purchases of antibiotics by U.S. hospitals in 1995 – $8.7 billion (67)
Breeding ground of many antibiotic resistant bacteria today – U.S. hospitals (68)
Number of Americans who die each year from infections they pick up in a hospital – …More than four times the number who die in automobile accidents (67)

Alternative Medicine and the AMA

AMA’s historical relationship to midwifery – vehement opposition

AMA’s historical relationship to virtually all alternative forms of medicine – vehement opposition

U.S. District Court’s ruling in 1987 – the AMA and its officials were found guilty of conspiring to eliminate the chiropractic profession

U.S. Supreme Court’s decision after AMA appealed – Upheld the ruling

Book published by AMA and featured in AMA’s 1996 catalog – Alternative Health Methods (69)
Description of Alternative Health Methods in AMA catalog – “A must for answering questions [about] unproven, disproven, controversial, fraudulent, and/or otherwise questionable approaches [such as] acupuncture, faith healing, biofeedback, homeopathy, naturopathy, colonic irrigation, and more!” (69)
Characterization of holistic medicine found in Alternative Health Methods – “A melange of banalities, truisms, exaggerations, falsehoods, overlaid with disparagement. . . of logical reasoning itself.” (70)

Tobacco and the AMA

Number of Americans killed by cigarettes annually – 434,000 (more than are killed by automobile accidents, fires, alcohol-related deaths, murder, suicide, AIDS, cocaine and heroin combined) (71)
Number of American deaths caused by second-hand smoke annually – 50,000 (more than are killed by AIDS, illegal drugs and teenage drinking combined) (72)
Percentage of U.S. smokers who have never been advised by their doctors to quit, despite averaging over four doctors’ visits a year – 56% (73)
Year it was learned that 96.5% of patients with lung cancer had been smokers – 1950 (74)
Year the U.S. Surgeon General announced that smoking not only caused lung cancer, but also heart disease and emphysema, and was costing the country tens of billions of dollars a year in healthcare costs – 1964
Public statement by AMA president Edward R. Annis in 1964 regarding Surgeon General’s report – “The AMA is not opposed to smoking and tobacco.” (75)

Title of the AMA’s primary study of the health consequences of tobacco (1964-1978) – the AMA-ERF study
Amount of funding for AMA-ERF study provided by AMA – $500,000 (76)
Amount of funding for AMA-ERF study provided by tobacco industry – $16,000,000 (76)

Position of AMA when the American Cancer Society, the Public Health Service, and the Federal Trade Commission supported health warnings on cigarette packages – opposition (77)

Year that AMA’s Member Retirement Fund was discovered to have millions invested in tobacco securities - 1981 (78)

Year the AMA wrote a special supplement published by Newsweek on personal health to “help readers avoid self-induced illnesses” – 1983 (79)

Discussion of health hazards of tobacco – none (79)
Year the Chicago Sun-Times disclosed that two AMA Board members, including the AMA’s president- elect Dr. Harrison L. Rogers, owned a farm on which tobacco was grown – 1985 (80)

Name of 1989 bill which effectively banned smoking on almost all commercial domestic airplane flights – the Durbin bill
AMA’s response – claimed credit and sent out letters boasting of its role (81)
Congressman Richard Durbin’s view of AMA’s role – “There was no evidence of any strong support for our effort from the AMA.” (81)
Award given annually by the AMA for outstanding contributions to the betterment of public health – Nathan Davis award (named for AMA’s founder)
Recipient of AMA’s 1993 Nathan Davis award – Congressman J. Roy Rowland, M.D.
American Lung Association’s opinion of Congressman J. Roy Rowland, M.D. – “Rowland has consistently championed the interests of the tobacco industry. He has actively opposed measures designed to protect children from tobacco addiction and even voted against legislation to eliminate smoking on airplanes.” (82)

Year the New England Journal of Medicine published a special article analyzing the campaign contributions made by the AMA to Congressional candidates – 1994 (83)
Conclusion of New England Journal of Medicine report – AMA gave significantly more money to legislators supporting tobacco export promotion than those opposing it (83)
Consequence of U.S. tobacco export promotion – Tremendous rise in tobacco use in many countries, particularly among young people. Smoking among teenage girls in Korea rose more than 300%. (84)

Average tax per pack of cigarettes in England – $3.09 (85)
Average tax per pack of cigarettes in Canada – $3.25 (85)
Average tax per pack of cigarettes in Norway – $3.93 (85)
Average tax per pack of cigarettes in U.S. – $0.51 (85)

What happened in New Zealand between 1980 and 1991 due to a tax increase of $1.97 per pack – Cigarette consumption dropped more than 60% (85)
Number of nations who have raised cigarette taxes substantially who have not experienced dramatic reductions in cigarette consumption – None (85)
Healthcare savings obtainable annually in U.S. with a 60% drop in cigarette consumption – $60 billion (40)

Do You Trust These People To Make Your Healthcare Decisions For You?

World’s largest private cancer treatment and research center- Memorial Sloan-Kettering
Director, Memorial Sloan-Kettering’s Board of Overseers and Managers – John S. Reed
John S. Reed’s other job – Director, Philip Morris

Health insurance companies heavily invested in tobacco stocks – Travelers, Prudential, Cigna, MetLife, Aetna (86)
Prudential Insurance Company’s 1995 investment in tobacco stocks – $248 million (86)

Lifetime cap on injury awards for pain and suffering sought by U.S. health insurance companies – $250,000 (87)
Leading advocate of such legislation – American International Group Insurance Company (87)

1994 compensation of American International Group Insurance Company’s CEO (Maurice Greenberg) – $12,080,000 (87)
How often Maurice Greenberg received the amount of money ($250,000) that his and other health insurance companies have sought to place as a lifetime cap on pain and suffering injury awards – every 2 weeks (2)

CEO of Hospital Corporation of America in 1992 – Thomas F. Frist
Thomas F. Frist’s 1992 compensation – $127,000,000 ($500,000 per business day), ($500,000 per business day), ($500,000 per business day)

How much health insurance companies typically pay for a heart patient’s bypass surgery – $30,000 (88)
How much for a heart patient’s balloon angioplasty – $7,500 (88)
How much for a heart patient’s nutrition and stress management education – $150 (88)

How much health insurance companies typically pay for teaching a well person how to eat well, stay healthy, and prevent heart disease – $0 (88)

The Cancer Industry

Percentage of cancer patients whose lives are reliably saved by chemotherapy – 3% (89)
Evidence for the majority of cancers that chemotherapy exerts a significant positive influence on survival or quality of life – none (89)
Percentage of oncologists who said that if they developed cancer they would not participate in chemotherapy trials due to “the ineffectiveness of chemotherapy and its unacceptable degree of toxicity” – 75% (90)

Percentage of people with cancer in the United States who receive chemotherapy – 75% (91)

Company that accounts for nearly half of the chemotherapy sales in the world – Bristol-Meyers Squibb

Chairman of the Board, Bristol-Meyers Squibb – Richard L. Gelb
Richard L. Gelb’s other job – Vice-Chairman, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Director, Bristol-Meyers Squibb – James D. Robinson III
James D. Robinson III’s other job – Chairman of the Board, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Director, Ivax, Inc. (a prominent chemotherapy company) – Samuel Broder
Samuel Broder’s other job (until 1995) – Executive Director, the National Cancer Institute

Reclaiming Our Health

Medical costs attributable to smoking and meat consumption combined- greater than the costs of providing health coverage for all currently uninsured Americans (92)

Annual costs, according to the World Health Organization, required to provide every human being on Earth with access to primary education, healthcare, family planning services, safe drinking water, and adequate nutrition – $20 billion (93)

Annual healthcare savings obtainable in the U.S. alone by providing universal prenatal care, utilizing midwifery, encouraging breastfeeding, raising tobacco taxes to Canadian level, and eliminating government subsidies for tobacco and meat production – $120 billion (40)

As provocative as these facts are, their significance can best be grasped in context. In Reclaiming Our Health, John Robbins brings these and many other stunning realities into a perspective that shows a way to true healing for us as individuals, for our society, and for the whole earth community.

Endnotes
(1) – Analysis released April 26, 1996 by the American College of Physicians.
(2) – Author’s calculation, based on above figures.
(3) – William Thompson, “The Case for Single-Payer,” International Journal of Issues in Medicine, Aug. 1995.
(4) – Nicholas Kristof, “China Sets Example in Health Care,” New York Times — Ann Arbor News, April 14, 1991, A-6. Jane Lii, “China Booms, The World Holds Its Breath,” New York Times Magazine, Feb. 18, 1996, pg 27.
(5) – Joseph Pizzorno, Total Wellness (Rocklin, California: Prima, 1996).
(6) – “Overview of Healthamerica: Affordable Health Care for Americans,” U.S. Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee, Feb. 1992.
(7) – Fred Solomon,”Health Care Costs Are Eroding U.S. Competitiveness,” Automobile Journal Times, March, 1996, p.8.
(8) – Ken Pelletier, “A Review and Analysis of the Health and Cost-Effective Outcome Studies of Comprehensive Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Programs at the Worksite: 1991-1993 Update,” American Journal of Health Promotion 1993, 8:50-61.
(9) – H.B. Beckman, et al., “The Effect of Physician Behavior on the Collection of Data,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Nov. 1984, pp. 692-96.
(10) – Bruce Williamson, “Malpractice Suits Drive Up Healthcare Costs,” International Journal of Issues in Medicine, Dec. 1995.
(11) – The State of the World’s Children, 1996, UNICEF.
(12) – The Alan Guttmacher Institute, “Facts in Brief,” March 1993.
(13) – Midwives Alliance of North America survey, Feb 1993, reported in “Perinatal Healthcare Statistics,” Mothering , Fall 1993.
(14) – Health Insurance Associates of America, 1993, reported in “Perinatal…” as per note 13.
(15) – “Perinatal…” as per note 13.
(16) – Esther Zorn, “Profile of the Cesarean Epidemic.” Francis C. Notzen, “International Differences in the Use of Obstetric Interventions,” Journal of the American Medical Association, June 27, 1990, vol 263, no. 25, pg 3286-91. Richard Johnson, ” Cesarean Section Rates An American Disgrace,” International Journal of Issues in Medicine, April, 1996.
(17) – R. Johnson, as per note 16.
(18) – M. G. Rosen and J. C. Dickinson, “Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: A Meta-Analysis of Indicators for Success,” Obstetrics and Gynecology vol 76, 1990, pp. 865-69.
(19) – Marsden Wagner, “An Epidemic of Unnecessary Cesareans,” Mothering, Fall 1993, p. 72. Lynn Silver and Sidney Wolfe, “Unnecessary Sections – How To Cure a National Epidemic,” Public Citizen Health Research Group, Washington, DC.
(20) – J. P. Rooks, et al., “Outcomes of Care in Birth Centers: The National Birth Center Study,” New England Journal of Medicine, Dec 28, 1989; 321(26): pg 1804-11.
(21) – Henci Goer, Obstetric Myths Veresus Research Realities: A Guide to the Medical Literature (Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 1995), pp. 319-30.
(22) – Diana Korte and Roberta Scaer, A Good Birth, A Safe Birth (Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1992), p. 35, 47.
(23) – Ibid, p. 34.
(24) – Robert C. Goodlin, “Low-Risk Obstetric Care for Low-Risk Mothers,” Lancet 1:8176, May 10, 1980.
(25) – H. Goer, as per note 21, p. 320.
(26) – Marjorie Tew, “Do Obstetric Intranatal Interventions Make Birth Safer?” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecaeology, July 1986;93(7), pg 684-9.
(27) – C. Miller, “Infant Mortality in the U.S.,” Scientific American, July 1985.
(28) – Northeast Ohio Coalition for National Health Care Report, Oct 1991, reported in “Perinatal…” as per note 13.
(29) – The Alan Guttmacher Institute, “Facts in Brief,” Feb, 1993, reported in “Perinatal…” as per note 13.
(30) – Lawton Chiles, “The National Commission to Prevent Infant Mortality,” Mothering, Summer 1988, pg 67.
(31) – Challenges in Health Care: A Chartbook Perspective, (Princeton, NJ: The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1991), pp. 36-37, reported in “Perinatal…” as per note 13.
(32) – Jim Lake, “Prenatal Care: A Cost-Effective Approach,” Journal of Advances in Childcare, July 1995.
(33) – “Perinatal…” as per note 13.
(34) – Leslie Laurence and Beth Weinhouse, Outrageous Practices (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994), p. 42.
(35) – John M. Smith, Women and Doctors (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1992), p. 2.
(36) – Celso-Ramon Garcia, et al., “Preservation of the Ovary: A Reevaluation,” Fertility and Sterility, 42(4), Oct, 1984, pg 510-14. J. Smith, as per note 35, p. 14. Christiane Northrup, Women’s Bodies, Women’s Wisdom (New York: Bantam, 1994), p. 152.
(37) – Stanley West, The Hysterectomy Hoax (New York: Doubleday, 1994), p. 1, 23.
(38) – C. Northrup, as per note 36, p. 172.
(39) – Ibid, p. 166.
(40) – Figure based on author’s research and calculations.
(41) – L. L. Piana Simonsen, “Top 200 Drugs of 1992: What Are Pharmacists Dispensing Most Often?” Pharmacy Times, April 1993, pp. 29-44.
(42) – Carolyn DeMarco, Take Charge Of Your Body (Winlaw, B.C.: Well Women Press, 1994), p. 220.
(43) – Tori Hudson, et al –”A Pilot Study Using Botanical Medicines in the Treatment of Menopause Symptoms,” Townsend Letter for Doctors, Dec. 1994, pg 1372.
(44) – “Women’s Information About Menopause is Limited,” North American Menopause Society, Sept 4, 1993. Results of a Gallup survey of 833 menopausal women.
(45) – Editorial, New England Journal of Medicine; Aug 27, 1992.
(46) – Sadja Greenwood, Menopause, Naturally (Volcano, Calif.: Volcano Press, 1992), pp. 111-15.
(47) – John Lee, “Osteoporosis Reversal with Transdermal Progesterone,” Lancet, 336, 1990, p. 1327. John Lee, “Osteoporosis Reversal: The Role of Progesterone,” Clinical Nutritional Review, 10, 1990, pp. 384-91. John Lee, “Is Natural Progesterone the Missing Link in Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment?”Medical Hypotheses, 35, 1991, pp. 316-8.
(48) – Dean Ornish, “Can Lifestyle Changes Reverse Coronary Heart Disease?” Lifestyle Heart Trial, Lancet, vol 336, July 21, 1990, pp. 129-33. Dean Ornish, Dr. Dean Ornish’s Program for Reversing Heart Disease (New York: Random House, 1990). Caldwell Esselstyn, Journal of Family Practice 1995; 41(6), pp. 560-68.
(49) – American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, March 1983.
(50) – Associated Press, “Ritalin Maker Opens Drive to EndAbuse,” New York Times, Mar. 28, 1966, p. A-13. “U.C. Professor Critical of Ritalin Dependency,” San Jose Mercury News, Mar. 3, 1996, p. 5-B.
(51) – Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR).
(52) – Alfie Kohn, “Suffer The Restless Children,” Atlantic Monthly, Nov 1989, pg 98.
(53) – J. Egger, et al., “Controlled Trial of Oligoantigenic Treatment in the Hyperkinetic Syndrome,” Lancet, 1985, pg 540.
(54) – Stephen Schoenthaler, “Institutional Nutritional Policies and Criminal Behavior,” Nutrition Today, 20(3), 1985, pg 16. See also: Stephen Schoenthaler, “Diet and Crime: An Empirical Examination of the Value of Nutrition in the Control and Treatment of Incarcerated Juvenile Offenders,” International Journal of Biosocial Research, 4(1), 1983, pg 25-39. Stephen Schoenthaler, “Types of Offenses Which can be Reduced in an Institutional Setting Using Nutritional Intervention: A Preliminary Empirical Evaluation,” International Journal of Biosocial Research, 4(2), 1983, pg 74-84. Stephen Schoenthaler, “The Los Angeles Probation Department Diet Behavior Program: An Empirical Evaluation of Six Institutions,” International Journal of Biosocial Research, 5(2), 1983, 88-98.
(55) – Stephen Schoenthaler, et al., “The Impact of a Low Food Additive and Sucrose Diet on Academic Performance in 803 New York City Public Schools,” International Journal of Biosocial Research, 8(2), 1986, pg 185-195.
(56) – “Medication For Children With An Attenton Deficit Disorder (RE 7103),” American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Children With Disabilities, Committee on Drugs; Pediatrics, 80(5), Nov 1987. (57) – Amy O’Connor, “In The News,” Vegetarian Times, Oct 1995, pg 20.
(58) – Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Sept 1994, pg 975.
(59) – “Questions Most Frequently Asked About Hyperactivity,” Produced by the Sugar Association, Inc., Washington, D.C.
(60) – “Consumer Fact Sheet: Diet and Behavior,” The Sugar Association, Washington, D.C.
(61) – Association of American Medical Colleges. Cited in Sharon Bloyd-Peshkin, “Physician, Know Thy Nutrition,” Vegetarian Times, Feb 1993, p. 48.
(62) – U.S. Senate Investigation, cited in John McDougall, The McDougall Plan (Clinton, NJ: New Win, 1983), p. 7.
(63) – According to a study by Roland Weinsier, Chairman of the Department of Nutrition Sciences at the Univ. of Alabama in Birmingham, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 1988.
(64) – Wall Street Journal, “Odds and Ends,” June 9, 1993, p. B-1.
(65) – Irvin Molotsky, “Animal Antibiotics Tied to Illnesses in Humans,” New York Times, Feb 22, 1987.
(66) – Stuart B. Levy, The Antibiotic Paradox: How Miracle Drugs are Destroying the Miracle (New York: Plenum Press, 1992).
(67) – Jeffrey Fisher, The Plague Makers (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994), p. 31.
(68) – Laurie Garrett, The Coming Plague (New York: Penguin, 1994), p. 437.
(69) – American Medical Association Winter Catalog 1996, p. 37.
(70) – “Holistic Medicine,” in Alternative Health Methods (Chicago: American Medical Association, 1993), p. 81.
(71) – Introduction, Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: A Report of the Surgeon General; U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking and Health, 1994. U.S. Dept of Commerce, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1993; Tables 126, 131, 135; U.S. Govt Printing Office, Washington, 1993.
(72) – Geoffrey Cowley, “Poisons at Home and Work,” Newsweek; June 29, 1992. Michael Jacobson and Laurie Ann Mazur, Marketing Madness (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), p. 149. C. Northrup, as per note 36, p. 612.
(73) – R. F. Anda, et al., “Are Physicians Advising Smokers to Quit? The Patient’s Perspective,” Journal of the American Medical Association, April 10, 1987, pp. 1916-19.
(74) – Ernest Wynder, et al., “Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiologic Factor in Bronchogenic Carcinoma,” Journal of the American Medical Association, May, 1950, pg 329-38.
(75) – Richard Harris, A Sacred Trust (New York: New American Library, 1966), p. 159.
(76) – “Smoking Study Funds Donated,” and “Research Group Named,” AMA News, Feb 17, 1964, pg 1. Howard Wolinsky and Tom Brune, The Serpent on the Staff (New York: Tarcher/Putnam, 1994), p. 152.
(77) – H. Wolinsky, as per note 76, p. 153.
(78) – “Doctor’s Dilemma,” Wall Street Journal, March 12, 1981, Sec 2, p. 29.
(79) – M. Jacobson, as per note 72, pg 159.
(80) – Howard Wolinsky, “AMA Burns Smoking Issue at Both Ends,” Chicago Sun-Times; June 18, 1985, p. 3. H. Wolinsky, “AMA’s Chief Edgy About Tobacco Land,” Chicago Sun-Times; June 19, 1985, p. 24.
(81) – H. Wolinsky, as per note 76, p. 165.
(82) – Ibid, pg 168.
(83) – Joshua Sharfstein, et al., “Campaign Contributions from the American Medical Political Action Committee to Members of Congress,” New England Journal of Medicine, Jan. 6, 1994, p. 32.
(84) – “Philip Morris: Death, Disease, and Duplicity,” Multi-National Monitor, Dec. 1994, pg 14.
(85) – Hal Kane, “Putting Out Cigarettes,” WorldWatch, Sept-Oct 1992, p. 9.
(86) – “The Tobacco-Health Insurance Connection,” Lancet, July 8, 1995. “Health Care Giants Invest Their Juicy Profits in Tobacco Stock,” Public Citizen Health Letter, Aug. 1995, pg 12.
(87) – “Civil Suits Awards a Pittance Compared to CEO Salaries, Study Shows,” Public Citizen, 1995, p. 7.
(88) – Dean Ornish, Dr. Dean Ornish’s Program for Reversing Heart Disease (New York: Random House, 1990), p. 28.
(89) – John Cairns, “The Treatment of Diseases and the War Against Cancer,” Scientific American, 253(5), Nov. 1985, pp. 51-59. John Bailar and Elaine Smith, “Progress Against Cancer?,” New England Journal of Medicine, 314, May 8, 1986, pp. 1226-33. Ulrich Abel, Chemotherapy of Advanced Epithelial Cancer (Stuttgart: Hippokrates Verlag, 1990).
(90) – Ralph Moss, Questioning Chemotherapy (Brooklyn: Equinox, 1995), p. 40.
(91) – Ibid, pp. 73-4.
(92) – Neal Barnard, et al., “The Medical Costs Attributable to Meat Consumption,” Preventive Medicine (24), 1995, pp. 646-55.
(93) – “Citings,” World Watch, May/June 1993, p. 8.

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